Vibrio cholerae produced-Cholix toxin (Cholix) is a cytotoxin that ADP-ribosylates eukaryotic elongation factor 2, inhibiting protein synthesis, and inducing apoptosis. Here, we identified prohibitin (PHB) 1 and 2 as novel Cholix-interacting membrane proteins in immortalized human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells by Cholix immunoprecipitation assays. The expression level of PHB1 was decreased by Cholix after a 12 h incubation. Cholix-induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was significantly enhanced in PHB (PHB1 or PHB2) knockdown cells. In contrast, transiently overexpressed PHB in hepatocytes attenuated Cholix-induced Bax/Bak conformational changes and PARP cleavage. In addition, Cholix-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and accumulation of fragmented mitochondria were enhanced in PHB-knockdown cells. Furthermore, Cholix induced activation of Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), which was enhanced in PHB-knockdown cells, followed by actin filament depolymerization and accumulation of tubulin in the blebbing cells. Inhibition of ROCK1 by siRNA or its inhibitor suppressed Cholix-induced PARP cleavage and ROS generation. Our findings identify PHB as a new protein that interacts with Cholix and is involved in Cholix-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoskeletal rearrangement by ROCK1 activation during apoptosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.