Product: Cholera Toxin (AZIDE-FREE) from Vibrio cholerae
Cholera toxin (CT) is a secreted bacterial toxin that binds to glycoconjugate receptors on the surface of mammalian cells, enters mammalian cells through endocytic mechanisms and intoxicates mammalian cells by activating cytosolic adenylate cyclase. CT recognizes cell surface receptors through its B subunit (CTB). While the ganglioside GM1 has been historically described as the sole receptor, CTB is also capable of binding to fucosylated glycoconjugates, and fucosylated molecules have been shown to play a functional role in host cell intoxication by CT. Here, we use colonic epithelial and respiratory epithelial cell lines to examine how two types of CT receptors—gangliosides and fucosylated glycoconjugates—contribute to CTB internalization. We show that fucosylated glycoconjugates contribute to CTB binding to and internalization into host cells, even when the ganglioside GM1 is present. The contributions of the two classes of receptors to CTB internalization depend on cell type. Additionally, in a cell line that harbours both classes of receptors, gangliosides dictate the efficiency of CTB internalization. Together, the results lend support to the idea that fucosylated glycoconjugates play a functional role in CTB internalization, and suggest that CT internalization depends on both receptor identity and cell type.