Recombinant anthrax lethal factor was purchased from List Biological Laboratories, Inc. A sequence-optimized chromogenic substrate of lethal factor, Ac-NleKKKKVLP-p-nitroaniline, was synthesized as described .
There has been a striking generational increase in life-threatening food allergies in Westernized societies1,2. One hypothesis to explain this rising prevalence is that twenty-first century lifestyle practices, including misuse of antibiotics, dietary changes, and higher rates of Caesarean birth and formula feeding have altered intestinal bacterial communities; early-life alterations may be particularly detrimental3,4. To better understand how commensal bacteria regulate food allergy in humans, we colonized germ-free mice with feces from healthy or cow's milk allergic (CMA) infants5. We found that germ-free mice colonized with bacteria from healthy, but not CMA, infants were protected against anaphylactic responses to a cow's milk allergen. Differences in bacterial composition separated the healthy and CMA populations in both the human donors and the colonized mice. Healthy and CMA colonized mice also exhibited unique transciptome signatures in the ileal epithelium. Correlation of ileal bacteria with genes upregulated in the ileum of healthy or CMA colonized mice identified a clostridial species, Anaerostipes caccae, that protected against an allergic response to food. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal bacteria are critical for regulating allergic responses to dietary antigens and suggest that interventions that modulate bacterial communities may be therapeutically relevant for food allergy.
Chronic TLR7 and TLR9 signaling drives anemia via differentiation of specialized hemophagocytes
- successful. Different tracers were used, one in each site. The tracers used were fast blue (FB, Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, UK) and cholera-toxin b (CTB, List Biological Laboratories Inc, CA; 1% solution in 0.05M tris). Except for
Nucleus reuniens receives dense projections from both the hippocampus and the frontal cortices. Reflecting these connections, this nucleus is thought to enable executive functions, including those involving spatial learning. The mammillary bodies, which also support spatial learning, again receive dense hippocampal inputs, as well as lighter projections from medial frontal areas. The present study, therefore, compared the sources of these inputs to nucleus reuniens and the mammillary bodies. Retrograde tracer injections in rats showed how these two diencephalic sites receive projections from separate cell populations, often from adjacent layers in the same cortical areas. In the subiculum, which projects strongly to both sites, the mammillary body inputs originate from a homogenous pyramidal cell population in more superficial levels, while the cells that target nucleus reuniens most often originate from cells positioned at a deeper level. In these deeper levels, a more morphologically diverse set of subiculum cells contributes to the thalamic projection, especially at septal levels. While both diencephalic sites also receive medial frontal inputs, those to nucleus reuniens are especially dense. The densest inputs to the mammillary bodies appear to arise from the dorsal peduncular cortex, where the cells are mostly separate from deeper neurons that project to nucleus reuniens. Again, in those other cortical regions that innervate both nucleus reuniens and the mammillary bodies, there was no evidence of collateral projections. The findings support the notion that these diencephalic nuclei represent components of distinct, but complementary, systems that support different aspects of cognition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.