To advance research and development of improved pertussis vaccines, new immunoassays are needed to qualify the outcome of Bordetella pertussis (Bp) specific CD4+ T-cell differentiation. Here, we applied a recently developed whole blood assay to evaluate Bp specific CD4+ T-cell responses. The assay is based on intracellular cytokine detection after overnight in vitro Bp antigen stimulation of diluted whole blood. We show for the first time that CD4+ T-cell memory of Th1, Th2, and Th17 lineages can be identified simultaneously in whole blood. Participants ranging from 7 to 70 years of age with different priming backgrounds of whole-cell pertussis (wP) and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccination were analyzed around an acellular booster vaccination. The assay allowed detection of low frequent antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells and revealed significantly elevated numbers of activated and cytokine-producing CD4+ T-cells, with a significant tendency to segregate recall responses based on primary vaccination background. A stronger Th2 response hallmarked an aP primed cohort compared to a wP primed cohort. In conclusion, analysis of Bp specific CD4+ T-cell responses in whole blood showed separation based on vaccination background and provides a promising tool to assess the quantity and quality of CD4+ T-cell responses induced by vaccine candidates.
Roles of the clip domains of two protease zymogens in the coagulation cascade in horseshoe crabs
Experimental Procedures Materials HEK293S GnTI− cells were obtained from ATCC. LPS derived from Salmonella Minnesota R595 (Re) was purchased from List Biological Laboratories, Inc. (Campbell, CA) and used for proB and proCE activation assays
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered coagulation cascade in horseshoe crabs comprises three protease zymogens, prochelicerase C (proC), prochelicerase B (proB), and the proclotting enzyme (proCE). The presence of LPS results in autocatalytic activation of proC to α-chelicerase C, which, in turn, activates proB to chelicerase B, converting proCE to the clotting enzyme (CE). ProB and proCE contain an N-terminal clip domain, but the roles of these domains in this coagulation cascade remain unknown. Here, using recombinant proteins and kinetics and binding assays, we found that five basic residues in the clip domain of proB are required to maintain its LPS-binding activity and activation by α-chelicerase C. Moreover, an amino acid substitution at a potential hydrophobic cavity in proB's clip domain (V55A-proB) reduced both its LPS-binding activity and activation rate. WT proCE exhibited no LPS-binding activity, and the WT chelicerase B-mediated activation of a proCE variant with a substitution at a potential hydrophobic cavity (V53A-proCE) was approximately 4-fold slower than that of WT proCE. The kcat/Km value of the interaction of WT chelicerase B with V53A-proCE was 7-fold lower than that of the WT chelicerase B-WT proCE interaction. The enzymatic activities of V55A-chelicerase B and V53A-CE against specific peptide substrates were indistinguishable from those of the corresponding WT proteases. In conclusion, the clip domain of proB recruits it to a reaction center composed of α-chelicerase C and LPS, where α-chelicerase C is ready to activate proB, leading to chelicerase B-mediated activation of proCE via its clip domain. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
CYBB/NOX2 in conventional DCs controls T cell encephalitogenicity during neuroinflammation
AT-EAE was induced as previously described . In brief, 2D2/TCRMOG mice were immunized with 200 μg of MOG35–55 (MEVGWYRSPFSRVVHLYRNGK; Genscript, RP10245) emulsified in CFA (BD Difco, 263810) and treated with 200 ng of pertussis toxin (List Biological Laboratories, 179B) i.p. on the day of immunization
Whereas central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis is highly dependent on tissue surveillance by immune cells, dysregulated entry of leukocytes during autoimmune neuroinflammation causes severe immunopathology and neurological deficits. To invade the CNS parenchyma, encephalitogenic T helper (TH) cells must encounter their cognate antigen(s) presented by local major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-expressing antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The precise mechanisms by which CNS-associated APCs facilitate autoimmune T cell reactivation remain largely unknown. We previously showed that mice with conditional deletion of the gene encoding the essential autophagy protein ATG5 in dendritic cells (DCs) are resistant to EAE development. Here, we report that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2, also known as CYBB/NOX2, in conventional DCs (cDCs) regulates endocytosed MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte protein) antigen processing and supports MOG-antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells through LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Genetic ablation of Cybb in cDCs is sufficient to restrain encephalitogenic TH cell recruitment into the CNS and to ameliorate clinical disease development upon the adoptive transfer of MOG-specific CD4+ T cells. These data indicate that CYBB-regulated MOG-antigen processing and LAP in cDCs licenses encephalitogenic TH cells to initiate and sustain autoimmune neuroinflammation. Ag: antigen; APC: antigen-presenting cell; AT: adoptive transfer; ATG/Atg: autophagy-related; BAMs: border-associated macrophages; BMDC: bone marrow-derived DC; CD: cluster of differentiation; CNS: central nervous system; CSF2/GM-CSF: colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage); CYBB/NOX2/gp91phox: cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide; DC: dendritic cell; EAE: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; fl: floxed; FOXP3: forkhead box P3; GFP: green fluorescent protein; H2-Ab: histocompatibility 2, class II antigen A, beta 1; IFN: interferon; IL: interleukin; ITGAX/CD11c: integrin subunit alpha X; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MFI: median fluorescence intensity; MG: microglia; MHCII: major histocompatibility complex class II; MOG: myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; MS: multiple sclerosis; NADPH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; ODC: oligodendroglial cell; OVA: ovalbumin; pDC: plasmacytoid DC; Ptd-L-Ser: phosphatidylserine; PTPRC: protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; TH cells: T helper cells; TLR: toll-like receptor; ZBTB46: zinc finger and BTB domain containing 46.
Platelets Fuel the Inflammasome Activation of Innate Immune Cells
nt, CA, USA) in a mixture of incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RaA (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA). Pertussis toxin (PT, List Biological Laboratories, Campbell, CA, USA) was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 400 ng on post-immunization days 0 and 2. A booster injection of MOG35-55 was given on day 7. The clinical ... nt, CA, USA) in a mixture of incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RaA (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA). Pertussis toxin (PT, List Biological Laboratories, Campbell, CA, USA) was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 400 ng on post-immunization days 0 and 2. A booster injection of MOG35-55 was given on day 7. The clinical
Previous studies in our lab revealed that chemical zinc chelation or zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) gene deletion suppresses the clinical features and neuropathological changes associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In addition, although protective functions are well documented for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), paradoxically, disease-promoting effects have also been demonstrated for this enzyme. Recent studies have demonstrated that AMPK contributes to zinc-induced neurotoxicity and that 1H10, an inhibitor of AMPK, reduces zinc-induced neuronal death and protects against oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Here, we sought to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of 1H10 against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55-induced EAE. 1H10 (5 μg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected once per day for the entire experimental course. Histological evaluation was performed three weeks after the initial immunization. We found that 1H10 profoundly reduced the severity of the induced EAE and that there was a remarkable suppression of demyelination, microglial activation, and immune cell infiltration. 1H10 also remarkably inhibited EAE-associated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, MMP-9 activation, and aberrant synaptic zinc patch formation. Furthermore, the present study showed that long-term treatment with 1H10 also reduced the clinical course of EAE. Therefore, the present study suggests that zinc chelation and AMPK inhibition with 1H10 may have great therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.