W3110) ; the strains of Salmonella, including the following: S. urbana (FMU459), S. arizonae (FMU308), and S. typhi ATCC 6539 (FMU073), which also came from the Faculty of Medicine, UNAM; the core Ra came from S. minnesota (List Biological Laboratories Cached
Escherichia coli and Salmonella are etiologic agents of intestinal infections. A previous study showed the presence of shared epitopes between lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of E. coli O157 and Salmonella. Using phage display, the aim of this study is to identify mimotopes of shared epitopes in different enterobacterial LPSs. We use anti-LPS IgG from E. coli O157 and Salmonella to select peptide mimotopes of the M13 phage. The amino acid sequence of the mimotopes is used to synthesize peptides, which are in turn used to immunize rabbits. The antibody response of the resulting sera against the LPSs and synthetic peptides (SPs) is analyzed by ELISA and by Western blot assays, indicating that LPS sites are recognized by the same antibody. In a complementary test, the reactions of human serum samples obtained from the general population against the SPs and LPSs are also analyzed. From the last biopanning phase, sixty phagotopes are selected. The analysis of the peptide mimotope amino acid sequences shows that in 4 of them the S/N/A/PF motif is a common sequence. Antibodies from the sera of immunized rabbits with SP287/3, SP459/1, SP308/3, and SP073/14 react against both their own peptide and the different LPSs. The Western blot test shows a sera reaction against both the lateral chains and the cores of the LPSs. The analysis of the human sera shows a response against the SPs and LPSs. The designed synthetic peptides are mimotopes of LPS epitopes of Salmonella and E. coli that possess immunogenic capacity. These mimotopes could be considered for use in the design of vaccines against both enterobacteria.
SIRPα on CD11c+ cells induces Th17 cell differentiation and subsequent inflammation in the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (BD Biosciences). Pertussis toxin (200 ng, ip)(List Biological Laboratories) was also injected at the same time as MOG(35-55) as well as 2 days later. Animals were observed
Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is expressed predominantly on type 2 conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and macrophages. We previously showed that mice systemically lacking SIRPα were resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we showed that deletion of SIRPα in CD11c+ cells of mice (SirpaΔDC mice) also markedly ameliorated the development of EAE. The frequency of cDCs and migratory DCs (mDCs), as well as that of Th17 cells, were significantly reduced in draining lymph nodes of SirpaΔDC mice at the onset of EAE. In addition, we found the marked reduction in the number of Th17 cells and DCs in the CNS of SirpaΔDC mice at the peak of EAE. Whereas inducible systemic ablation of SIRPα before the induction of EAE prevented disease development, that after EAE onset did not ameliorate the clinical signs of disease. We also found that EAE development was partially attenuated in mice with CD11c+ cell-specific ablation of CD47, a ligand of SIRPα. Collectively, our results suggest that SIRPα expressed on CD11c+ cells such as cDC2s and mDCs is indispensable for the development of EAE, being required for the priming of self-reactive Th17 cells in the periphery as well as for the inflammation in the CNS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ligand Binding to the Collagen VI Receptor Triggers a Talin-to-RhoA Switch that Regulates Receptor Endocytosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that is characterized by demyelination and axonal damage in the central nervous system. Cognitive deficits are recognized as one of the features of MS, and these deficits affect the patients' quality of life. Increasing evidence from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, has suggested that EAE mice exhibit hippocampal impairment and cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a key contributor to neuroinflammation and is involved in the development of MS and EAE. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia is fundamental for subsequent inflammatory events. Activated microglia can convert astrocytes to the neurotoxic A1 phenotype in a variety of neurological diseases. However, it remains unknown whether the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to cognitive deficits and astrocyte phenotype alteration in EAE. In this study, we demonstrated that severe memory deficits occurred in the late phase of EAE, and cognitive deficits were ameliorated by treatment with MCC950, an inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, MCC950 alleviated hippocampal pathology and synapse loss. Astrocytes from EAE mice were converted to the neurotoxic A1 phenotype, and this conversion was prevented by MCC950 treatment. IL-18, which is the downstream of NLRP3 inflammasome, was sufficient to induce the conversion of astrocytes to the A1 phenotype through the NF-κB pathway. IL-18 induced A1 type reactive astrocytes impaired hippocampal neurons through the release of complement component 3 (C3). Altogether, our present data suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in cognitive deficits in EAE, possibly via the alteration of astrocyte phenotypes. Our study provides a novel therapeutic strategy for hippocampal impairment in EAE and MS.