Therefore, the main study was performed only in female Sprague-Dawley rats. 2.4. BoNT administration. Research-grade, purified, native BoNT serotype A1 (BoNT-A; 150 kDa) was purchased from List Biological Laboratories (Campbell, CA, USA)
The mouse digit abduction score (DAS) assay is commonly used to measure muscle flaccidity-inducing effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) _in vivo_. Adapting the assay to rats has been challenging, as injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) into the gastrocnemius muscle, as performed in mice, or into the tibialis anterior leads to sub-optimal sensitivity of the test (Broide et al., 2013). To optimize the experimental design of the rat DAS assay, we evaluated the effects of research-grade, purified, native BoNT serotype A1 (BoNT-A) in three muscles: the gastrocnemius lateralis, peronei, and extensor digitorum longus using female animals. Following injection, animals were tested daily for the digit abduction and body weight.
Efficiency of placental transfer of vaccine-elicited antibodies relative to prenatal Tdap vaccination status
Post, AL;Li, SH;Berry, M;Itell, H;Martinez, DR;Xie, G;Permar, SR;Swamy, GK;Fouda, GG;
Influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) antigens were purchased from Protein Sciences (Meriden, CT). Pertussis fimbriae 2/3 and pertussis pertactin (69 kDa protein) were purchased from List Biological Labs (Campbell, CA)
To deplete monocytes in vivo, recipient mice transplanted with BMCs from CD11b-DTR TG mice or Jak2V617F/CD11b-DTR TG mice were administered 15 ng/g diphtheria toxin (DT) (List Biological Labs, Campbell, CA, USA) by intraperitoneal injection every 2 days
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by clonal myeloproliferation, progressive bone marrow (BM) fibrosis, splenomegaly, and anemia. BM fibrosis was previously thought to be a reactive phenomenon induced by mesenchymal stromal cells that are stimulated by the overproduction of cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. However, the involvement of neoplastic fibrocytes in BM fibrosis was recently reported. In this study, we showed that the vast majority of collagen- and fibronectin-producing cells in the BM and spleens of Jak2V617F-induced myelofibrosis (MF) mice were fibrocytes derived from neoplastic hematopoietic cells. Neoplastic monocyte depletion eliminated collagen- and fibronectin-producing fibrocytes in BM and spleen, and ameliorated most characteristic MF features in Jak2V617F transgenic mice, including BM fibrosis, anemia, and splenomegaly, while had little effect on the elevated numbers of megakaryocytes and stem cells in BM, and leukothrombocytosis in peripheral blood. TGF-β1, which was produced by hematopoietic cells including fibrocytes, promoted the differentiation of neoplastic monocytes to fibrocytes, and elevated plasma TGF-β1 levels were normalized by monocyte depletion. Collectively, our data suggest that neoplastic fibrocytes are the major contributor to BM fibrosis in PMF, and TGF-β1 is required for their differentiation.
Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and immunity to measles, rubella, tetanus and diphtheria among schoolchildren aged 6-7 years old in the Solomon Islands, 2016
The Western Pacific Region (WPR) established a goal to decrease chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children to <1% and to achieve ≥95% hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) and ≥95% three-dose (HepB3) coverage by 2017. In 2016, we conducted a national serosurvey in the Solomon Islands among 6-7-year-old school children to assess progress towards the control goal and immunity to measles, rubella, tetanus and diphtheria. Eighty schools were selected systematically proportional to their 6-7-year-old population; all 6-7-year-olds were enrolled. We collected basic demographic information and vaccination history. Children were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) using a rapid test, and for immunity to measles, rubella, tetanus, and diphtheria using a multiplex bead assay. In total, 1,249 out of 1,492 children (84%) were enrolled, among whom 1,169 (94%) underwent HBsAg testing and 1,156 (93%) provided dried blood spots. Almost 80% (n = 982) of enrolled children had vaccination cards, among whom 59% (n = 584) received a timely HepB-BD (within 24 hours of birth), 95% (n = 932) received HepB3, and >90% received vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, and measles (rubella vaccine was not available at the time). HBsAg prevalence was 3.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0%-4.9%), with 55% of identified cases from one province. Among 982 children with vaccination cards, HBsAg prevalence was higher among children who had not received a timely HepB-BD and at least two HepB doses compared to those who had (4% vs. 2%). Of 1,156 tested children, immunoprotection estimates were 99% (95% CI: 98%-99%) for measles, 99% (95% CI: 97%-100%) for rubella, 85% (95% CI: 83%-87%) for tetanus, and 51% (95% CI: 47%-55%) for diphtheria. Improving timely HepB-BD coverage and maintaining high HepB3 coverage could help Solomon Islands reach the regional HBV control goal. Low immunity to tetanus and diphtheria suggests the need to introduce booster doses to ensure long-term protection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dorsal prefrontal and premotor cortex of the ferret as defined by distinctive patterns of thalamo-cortical projections
The tracers used in the experiments per- formed at UCL were 1% CTB conjugated to TRITC (chol- era toxin B subunit-tetramethylrhodamine B isothiocyanate conjugate (CTB TRITC) from List Biological Laboratories, Campbell, CA)
Recent studies of the neurobiology of the dorsal frontal cortex (FC) of the ferret have illuminated its key role in the attention network, top-down cognitive control of sensory processing, and goal directed behavior. To elucidate the neuroanatomical regions of the dorsal FC, and delineate the boundary between premotor cortex (PMC) and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC), we placed retrograde tracers in adult ferret dorsal FC anterior to primary motor cortex and analyzed thalamo-cortical connectivity. Cyto- and myeloarchitectural differences across dorsal FC and the distinctive projection patterns from thalamic nuclei, especially from the subnuclei of the medial dorsal (MD) nucleus and the ventral thalamic nuclear group, make it possible to clearly differentiate three separate dorsal FC fields anterior to primary motor cortex: polar dPFC (dPFCpol), dPFC, and PMC. Based on the thalamic connectivity, there is a striking similarity of the ferret's dorsal FC fields with other species. This possible homology opens up new questions for future comparative neuroanatomical and functional studies.